Site Search:
Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
The Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was adopted at the national referendum on December 24, 1995 and signed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on January 17, 1996. Current wording includes amendments to the Constitutional Law #310 by June 30, 2000.
We the multinational People of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic,
  • united by the common fortune on our land; 
  • asserting human rights and liberties and promoting free development of person; 
  • proceeding from the responsibility for our Motherland before the present and next generations; 
  • confirming our adherence to values common to all mankind, striving for life in peace and harmony with all peoples according to generally recognized principles and rules of international law; 
  • establishing the constitutional state, which would ensure supremacy of law as an expression of will of the people; 
  • honoring the memory of our ancestors, who have passed us love and respect for our Motherland;
  • promoting general welfare and prosperity of Pridnestrovie,
do ordain and establish the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
 
SECTION I. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

ARTICLE 1
 
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a sovereign, independent, democratic, constitutional state.
Sovereignty and Power herein granted shall be vested in the people of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The people shall exercise its power directly or through Government and local government.
The referendum and free elections shall be the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people.
No person may usurp power in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Seizure of power and appropriation of power shall be prosecuted as the gravest crime against the nation.
 
ARTICLE 2

 
The Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the supreme Law of the Land. State power bodies, local government, public officers, public associations and citizens shall be bound to observe the Constitution and Laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 3

 
Citizenship of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be granted and revoked in accordance with the constitutional law, and shall be equal for all citizens irrespective of the grounds for acquisition.
A citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic cannot be deprived of his citizenship or of the right to renounce it. A citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may have a citizenship of another state, i.e. - double citizenship.
Unless otherwise provided by law, foreign citizens and stateless persons shall enjoy rights and liberties exercised by citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
ARTICLE 4

Private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership shall be recognized and shall enjoy equal protection in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
 
ARTICLE 5

Soil, entrails of the earth, waters, forests, airspace as well as other natural resources shall be exclusive ownership of the state. Land may be in the lifelong use of citizens with the right of succession, with their maximum size and the procedure for the use of land stipulated by law.
 
ARTICLE 6

The state power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The bodies of legislative, executive and judicial power shall be independent.
 

ARTICLE 7

The local government which shall consist of Councils of People's deputies and territorial public self-government, which directly, or through their elected bodies, shall operate independently and make decisions on social, economic, political, and cultural issues of local importance, proceeding from the state interests and interests of the population of their respective administrative territorial units shall be recognized and guaranteed in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
ARTICLE 8
 
The state, institutions and public officers shall operate in the conditions of democratic plurality of political institutions and opinions.
The state shall regulate relations between social, national and other communities under principles of equality and respect for their rights and interests.
No activity of public formations, their bodies and representatives aimed at forcible alteration of the fundamentals of constitutional governance and undermining of the security of the state, formation of armed units, incitement of social, racial, national and religious strife shall be allowed.
 
ARTICLE 9

The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a secular state. No religion may be established as state-sponsored or mandatory religion.
Religious associations shall be independent from the state and shall be equal before law.
 
ARTICLE 10

Foreign policy of the Republic shall be pursued under the principles of sovereign equality of states, non-use of force, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in internal affairs of other states.
Universally recognized principles and rules of international law as well as international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the basis of relations with other states and a component of the legal system.
 
ARTICLE 11

The Armed Forces shall be established to defend sovereignty and independence of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The procedure for formation and operation of the Armed Forces shall be regulated by law.
 
ARTICLE 12

The Moldavian, Russian, and Ukrainian languages shall be official languages on the basis of equality.
 
ARTICLE 13

The national flag, State Emblem, and the national anthem shall be established by law.
The capital of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is the city of Tiraspol.
 
ARTICLE 14

The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic consists of: the following cities - Bendery (with villages - Varnitsa, Ghyska, Protyagailovka), Dubossary, Rybnitsa, Tiraspol; and Grigoriopol, Dubossary, Kamenka, Slobodzeya, Rybnitsa districts.
Borders and territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be specified by law. 
 
ARTICLE 15

The provisions of the present Section of the Constitution shall be the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and may not be changed except as provided for in this Constitution.
No other provision of the present Constitution may contradict the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
SECTION  II. RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND GUARANTEES OF PERSON AND CITIZEN
 
ARTICLE 16

 
Person, his rights and liberties shall be supreme value to the society and the state. The state shall protect rights and liberties of person and citizen.
The basic rights and liberties of the human being shall be inalienable and shall belong to everyone from birth. 

ARTICLE 17

Every person regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, religion, social origin, convictions, personal and social status shall have equal rights and liberties and shall be equal before law.
Benefits and privileges may be granted only by law and should comply with the principles of social justice.  
 
ARTICLE 18

Human and civil rights and liberties may be restricted by law only to the extent required for ensuring the security of the state, protection of public order, morality, health, rights and freedoms of other persons.      
No person may enjoy benefits and privileges conflicting with law. 
 
ARTICLE 19

Everyone shall have the right to life. The state shall protect the right to life of person from any infringement.
Capital punishment until abolition may be envisaged by a federal law as an exclusive penalty for especially grave crimes against life by court decision only.
 
ARTICLE 20

Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal inviolability.
Person shall be arrested or detained only under the law.
A detainee shall have the right to examination of lawfulness of detention or arrest in court. 
 
ARTICLE 21

No one shall be subject to torture, violence or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment. No one may be subject to medical, scientific and other experiments without his or her free consent.
 
ARTICLE 22
 
Every person charged with a crime shall be considered not guilty until his or her guilt has been proven in conformity with the procedures stipulated by law and established by court verdict.
The defendant shall not be obliged to prove his or her innocence.
 
ARTICLE 23

No person shall be bound to be a witness against himself, his or her spouse and close relatives, the range of which shall be established by law.       
In the administration of justice no evidence obtained in violation of the federal law shall have legal force.
 
ARTICLE 24

Everyone shall have the right to protection of one's honor and good name, to privacy, to personal and family secrets, inviolability of residence
No person shall violate the right of the people to be secure in their houses, papers, telephone conversations, against unreasonable searches except in cases and order stipulated by law.
 
ARTICLE 25

Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to free movement and to choose the residence within the republic, to leave and enter it freely.
 
ARTICLE 26

Maternity and childhood, family shall be under protection of state.
Care for children and their upbringing shall be the equal right and duty of parents.
Employable children aged 18 and over shall take care of disabled parents. 
 
ARTICLE 27

Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, speech and convictions. Everyone shall have the right to seek, get, transfer, produce and disseminate information by any lawful means, except for information aimed against the existing constitutional system, or State secret. The list of information constituting the state secret shall be established by law       
Everybody shall have the right to free expression of views and convictions. 
 
ARTICLE 28
 
The mass media shall not be subject to censorship.
 
ARTICLE 29
 
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to get, keep and spread full, reliable and timely information on activities of public bodies, public associations, on political, economic, and international life, the state of environment.
State power bodies, the local government and public officers thereof shall provide access of each citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic to any documents and material directly affecting his/her rights and freedoms unless otherwise stipulated by law. 
 
ARTICLE 30

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of conscience, to freedom of religious worship, including the right to profess any religion, or to profess no religion.  Forced dissemination of religious ideas shall be banned.
 
ARTICLE 31

Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to participate in the administration of the state affairs directly or through their representatives. Citizens shall participate through self-government, holding of referenda, and democratic formation of government.
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to elect and to be elected to government under universal, equal, direct suffrage by ballot.
 
ARTICLE 32

The state shall guarantee freedom of assembly, rallies, marches, demonstrations and pickets, which do not violate law and order, as well as rights of other citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The organization procedure shall be stipulated by law.
 
ARTICLE 33
 
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to join the trade unions, political parties and other associations, to participate in mass movements not prohibited by law.
 
ARTICLE 34
 
Judges, prosecutor's office personnel, personnel of interior agencies, of the state control committee, of security agencies, servicemen may not be members of political parties and other public associations pursuing political goals.
 
ARTICLE 35
 
Labor shall be free. Everyone shall have the right to make free use of his abilities for work and to choose a type of activity and occupation.
Forced labor shall be prohibited.

Everyone shall have the right to working conditions meeting the safety and hygiene requirements, to labor remuneration without any discrimination whatsoever and not lower than the statutory minimum wage, and also the right to protection against unemployment.
The right to individual and collective labor disputes with the use of means of resolution thereof established by law including the right to strike shall be recognized.

Everyone shall have the right to rest and leisure. A person under a work contract shall be guaranteed the statutory duration of the work time, days off and holidays, and paid annual vacation. 
 
ARTICLE 36

Everyone shall have the right to freely use his or her abilities and property for entrepreneurial or any other economic activity not prohibited by the law.
 
ARTICLE 37

The right of private property shall be protected by law.
Everyone shall have the right to have property in his or her ownership, to possess, use and dispose of it
No one may be deprived of property otherwise than by a court decision.       
Exercising the right of property should not damage the environment, historic and cultural values, shall not infringe upon rights and statutory interests of other individuals or the state. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed. 
 
ARTICLE 38

Everyone shall be entitled to social security in old age, in case of disability, loss of the breadwinner, in other cases established by law.       
Pensions, benefits and other kinds of social support may not be lower than as stipulated by law.
 
ARTICLE 39

Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to health protection, including free medical service and treatment in public health institutions.
 
ARTICLE 40

Everyone shall have the right to the environment safe for life and health and to compensation for the harm caused by violation of this right. 
 
ARTICLE 41

Everybody shall have the right to education.
Citizens shall be entitled to general secondary and vocational secondary education in public educational institutions.
Everyone shall have the right to receive, free of charge and on a competitive basis, higher education in a state educational institution       
Basic general education shall be mandatory.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall establish federal state educational standards and support various forms of education and self-education.
 
ARTICLE 42

Every citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to housing. No one can be arbitrary deprived of housing.
Government shall encourage house-construction; create conditions for exercising the right to housing.
Low-income citizens and other citizens, defined by the law, who are in need of housing shall be housed free of charge or for affordable pay from government, municipal and other housing funds in conformity with the norms stipulated by the law.
 
ARTICLE 43

1. Everyone shall have the right to determine his nationality. No one may be forced to determine and indicate his or her nationality.
Insult of national dignity shall be punished as provided by law.
Everyone shall have the right to use his native language, freely choose the language of communication.
 
ARTICLE 44

Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of artistic, scientific and technical creative activity. Intellectual property shall be protected by the law.      
Intellectual property is protected by law.
The state shall promote cultural, scientific, and technical progress of society.  
 
ARTICLE 45

The state shall ensure rights and liberties of citizens stipulated by the Constitution. The listing of the basic rights and liberties in the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall not be interpreted as the denial or abridgment of the other generally recognized human rights and liberties.
 
ARTICLE 46

Everybody shall be guaranteed judicial protection of his rights and liberties as well as the right to appeal to the court against illegal decisions and actions of state institutions, officials, and public associations. 
 
ARTICLE 47

Exercising rights and liberties is inseparable from fulfillment of his duties before society and state by a citizen and person. 
 
ARTICLE 48

Defense of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a sacred duty for everybody. Law establishes universal military service.
 
ARTICLE 49

Everybody shall be bound to observe the Constitution and laws, as well as respect rights, liberties, honor and dignity of other people.
 
ARTICLE 50

Everybody shall be bound to preserve the environment.
 
ARTICLE 51

Everyone shall care for the preservation of the historic and cultural heritage of the people of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
ARTICLE 52

Everybody shall pay taxes and local taxes imposed by law.
 
SECTION III. FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
CHAPTER 1: DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM 
 

ARTICLE 53

1. Everybody shall have the right to compensation of the harm caused by illegal act (or omission) of state power bodies, of local government, or of their officials by the state, local self-government.

2. Respect for human dignity as well as full unconditional and immediate protection of rights and liberties of person and citizen, and providing conditions for free development of citizens shall be the responsibility of state power bodies, of local government and officials.

3. Any normative legal acts affecting rights, liberties and duties of person and citizen may not be applied without being published officially for general knowledge. 

ARTICLE 54

1. In conditions of a state of emergency or martial law, under the constitutional law, constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen stipulated by Articles 4, 20, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37 of this Constitution may be restricted. 
In conditions of a state of economic emergency, under the constitutional law, constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen stipulated by Articles 4, 35, 37 of this Constitution may be restricted. 
Restrictions of constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen specified in this Article may be imposed with limits and period of validity specified. Other constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen may not be restricted.
2. State of emergency, martial law or economic emergency state throughput the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may be declared under the circumstances and the procedure stipulated by the constitutional law. 
 
ARTICLE 55

 
1. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be a presidential republic.
2. The power of two or three branches of power may not be delegated to one institution or one person. The legislative power may not be delegated to one person. Executive organs of state power may not be empowered to issue laws; and the legislative power may not be authorized to run executive and judicial bodies and institutions.
Each of the organs of state power shall have control functions within the remit stipulated by this Constitution and law.
3. Judicial authority shall be exercised by courts, whose decisions shall be taken on behalf of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
 
ARTICLE 56

Under the procedure stipulated by this Constitution and legislation through establishment of institutions of state power and administration and through public officers the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as a sovereign state shall undertake to perform the following main functions:
a) to create and preserve a favourable environment; 
b) to provide public health services; 
c) to establish and to ensure functioning of the system of social security and welfare as well as the system of employment of able-bodied population;
d) to promote science, culture and providing educational opportunities for the population;
e) to pursue a foreign policy;
f) to form and to ensure the functioning of the financial system of the state;
g) to ensure development of the national economy;
h) to regulate domestic and foreign commerce;
i) to provide conditions for operation of transport and communication as single systems; 
j) to create conditions for functioning of the agricultural sector of the economy aimed at satisfying the needs of the population;
k) to preserve and to use natural resources rationally;
l) to create favourable conditions for industry and power engineering;
m) to ensure defense capability of the state;
n) to ensure domestic security for normal functioning of the state;
o) to exercise law-enforcement activity for security and benefit of the population; 
p) to ensure operation of institutions of justice;
q) to settle other matters requiring a uniform solution and application on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for ensuring welfare and benefit of the population.
 
ARTICLE 57

 
If an international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic establishes other rules than provided for by the legislation of the Republic, it may be ratified by the Parliament only after adoption (or concurrently with adoption) of the law introducing amendments to the legislation currently in force according to the international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, which is subject to ratification.
 
ARTICLE 58

Unless it leads to restriction of rights and liberties of person and citizen provided for by Section II of this Constitution and is inconsistent with the principles of the constitutional system, the exercising of certain powers of state power bodies may be delegated through passing a constitutional law in the order specified in Article 57 of this Constitution to another state or supranational institutions, to the extent, to which it will not mean for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic a refusal from its sovereignty. 
 
CHAPTER 2: PARLIAMENT OF THE PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC 
 
ARTICLE 59

1. The Supreme Council of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (hereinafter - "the Parliament") shall be the representative and the only legislative power body of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The Parliament shall consist of 43 Members.
2. The Parliament shall be elected for a term of five years. The next elections of Members to the Parliament shall be held on the second Sunday of December of the year, in which the term of office of the outgoing Parliament expires.
The Parliament as a state power body shall be competent to act provided that not less than two-thirds of Members have been elected.
The powers of the Parliament shall begin from the moment of opening its first session and expire on the opening day of the first session of a newly-elected Parliament.
3. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall convene the Parliament for its first sitting on the 30th day, at the latest, after election of not less than two-thirds of Members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall open the first sitting of the Parliament and shall entrust presiding over it to the oldest Member of Parliament until its Chairman (Speaker) is elected under the established procedure.
 
ARTICLE 60

1. Members of Parliament shall be elected by citizens of the Republic on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
No Person shall be a Member of Parliament who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
No Member of Parliament shall be appointed President or Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a Judge or a Prosecutor, to any civil Office or Office in the local government, a Member to other representative and elected state power bodies and local government.
Furthermore, a Member of Parliament shall work on a permanent professional basis. Members to Parliament may not hold another office of trust and profit or may not be engaged in any activities for remuneration except for teaching, research or other creative activities; may not be engaged in business, as well as may not be a member of a managing or a supervisory board of a commercial company.
Violation of this rule shall lead to suspension of office of a Member of Parliament. 
Elections for members of the Parliament shall be held on the basis of a majority electoral system (of a relative majority) in constituencies established on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
The manner of holding elections shall be prescribed by law. 
2. A Member of Parliament shall receive a compensation for his services and expanses for exercising his powers as a Member. 
A Member of Parliament shall attend sessions of the Parliament and its working bodies. 
The absence of Member of Parliament at the session of the Parliament and its working bodies without any valid reason shall entail application of punitive measures prescribed by law to a Member of Parliament. 
3. A Member of Parliament may not be made answerable for an opinion expressed by him or a decision taken during his continuance in office. 
A Member of Parliament shall enjoy immunity during his continuance in office. He may not be detained, arrested, searched, except for the cases of detention in flagrante delicto, may not be subject to a personal search, except for the cases provided for by laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in order to ensure security of other people.
A question of deprivation a Member of Parliament of his immunity shall be decided by the Parliament upon presentation by the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
4. Status of a Member of Parliament shall be prescribed by the constitutional law. 
 
ARTICLE 61

1. The Parliament shall elect its Speaker and Vice-Speaker from among its members. The Parliament shall establish standing, interim and other working bodies on matters falling within its jurisdiction.
The procedure for electing the Speaker and Vice-Speaker of the Parliament, as well as the procedure for establishing and functioning of the bodies within the Parliament, shall be prescribed by Standing Orders of the Parliament.
2. The Parliament and bodies formed from among the members of the Parliament must take into account rights of the minority (1/5 of members of the Parliament has the right at any moment of decision-making to demand to take a vote by secret ballot or by roll-call before a decision on open ballot is taken) as well as the right of any Member of the Parliament to demand to give publicity to information about affirmative and dissenting votes cast by members on a question.
3. Two-thirds of members elected to the Parliament shall agree to pass the bill.
 
ARTICLE 62
 
1. The jurisdiction of the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall include legislative regulation and its controlling functions. No legislative act may be passed by the Parliament at its session without its preliminary consideration by a working body within the Parliament.

2. Through passing legislative acts the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall:

a) lay the republican taxes and duties, establish a list of local taxes and dues as well as the procedure for collecting and levying them; determine a maximum amount of the tax burden on a taxpayer; establish the limits of the state debt and the amount of a single borrowing, in case of exceeding of which this action must be coordinated with the Parliament, as well as the order or objects of its securing; take decision on the currency issue in limits exceeding the amount established by law for independent decision by the Central Bank of the state.
b) consider and approve, in the framework of a long-term budget planning, republican programmes of economic, social, and cultural development, which have a national status; pass the budget and establish measures of inter-budget regulation;
c) take decisions on the administrative and territorial division of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, including those on changing the borders of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic by mutual agreement of bordering states.
d) ratify and denounce international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
e) introduce changes and amendments to the Constitution under the established procedure, introduce changes and amendments to legislative acts currently in force;
f) carry out legislative regulation of other questions requiring uniform solution and application on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

3. The Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall consider under the established procedure and time constraints, and make decisions, by issuing acts of law, on: 

 a) approval of President's decrees on introduction of martial law or a state of emergency;
b) the matters of war and peace;
c) declaring amnesty;
d) approval of a concept of domestic and foreign policy as well as of national security of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and its military doctrine;
e) holding of a referendum or nationwide discussion on matters of state or public importance on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
f) appointment and dismissal of the Chief Judge of the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and the Court of Arbitration, on the nomination by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; as well as an appointment and dismissal of two judges of the Constitutional Court;
g) appointment for the term of office provided by law and dismissal, on the nomination by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Chairman of the Central Bank of the state;
h) interpretation of laws and legal acts of no statutory character passed by the Parliament; 
i) it shall pass other acts and make other decisions not requiring regulation by law.

4. The Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right, for performing its supervisory duties under established procedure and time to consider and to make decisions, based on the results of consideration, on:

a) abolishing acts of local Councils of People's deputies (local representative organs of state power), in case of their inconsistency with the Constitution and the laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; as well as proposing elective organs and officials of local self-government to bring their own respective legal acts in line with the laws currently in force;
b) dissolution of local Councils of People's deputies (local representative organs of state power) and calling new elections, if they violate the Constitution, laws, decrees of the Parliament or acts of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and refuse to bring their decisions in line with the legislation;
c) removal from office of high rank officials of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, and the Cabinet of Ministers, in cases and under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution and law.
d) submitting a report to the President concerning an improper performance or non-performance of duties by an official or an organ of state power or administration.
Due to its supervisory duties the Parliament shall have the right to pass other acts (make other decisions) as well as to supervise implementation of legal and other acts by organs of power and administration, and officials. Decisions on dismissal, on pre-term dissolution of local Councils of People's deputies shall be taken by not less than two-thirds of members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution.
To perform its supervisory duties the Parliament shall hear a report on implementation of budget, economic and other national programs requiring extra budget funds and additional legislative regulation). 
 
ARTICLE 63
 
1. In the course of performing its legislative function, the Parliament shall pass constitutional laws, laws and rulings. Changes and amendments to the Constitution shall be introduced by the Parliament through issuing a constitutional law.

2. Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution and law, decrees shall be approved by a majority of votes of Members attending the sitting of the Parliament, provided there is a quorum.

3. Laws shall be considered and passed at least in two readings to be held in different sittings of the Parliament not taking place on the same day. Bills on introduction of amendments and additions to laws may be approved during one sitting, unless there is an objection against it from subjects of legislative initiative, having this bill for examination during an established period before its consideration by the Parliament.

Laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (including codes, laws on introduction of additions and amendments to the laws currently in force) shall be passed by a majority of votes of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. Introduction of amendments to the Constitution, adoption of constitutional laws and introduction of amendments and additions to them shall be approved by two thirds of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution.

Laws may not be contrary to the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

4. The approved bill shall take effect in a manner and time prescribed by law.

Laws are subject to promulgation. Unpublished laws shall not be applied.

5. The Parliament shall adopt legal acts of legislative character only in the form of laws, and every law, except for financial ones and those introducing amendments or additions or reforming the legislation currently in force, shall regulate only one subject. Financial laws shall regulate financial matters only.
The Parliament should not pass legal acts of special or local (and equally private) importance, if there is a law or an existing law can be applied for the case requiring legal regulation. In case of passage of a legal act of special or local action by the Parliament, the question about its competence in taking such an action shall be decided in court.
The list of constitutional laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be specified in this Constitution. 

6. The bill shall have no force and shall not be applied if the procedure for its introduction, consideration and approval is violated.
 
ARTICLE 64

1. The right to initiate laws shall be vested in the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, Members of Parliament, Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as in district and city Councils of People's deputies of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The right to initiate laws shall belong to the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and to the Court of Arbitration of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on the matters within their respective jurisdiction, as well as to republican associations of trade unions as to employment, social and economic matters.
Subjects of legislative initiative shall take part in the law-making process in the Parliament at all its stages (except for voting) on equal basis and may not be therein restricted, unless otherwise directly provided by this Constitution.
2. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to introduce the regime of legislative necessity when considering most important legislative acts, requiring consideration and adoption by the Parliament in the shortest possible term. In case of introduction of this regime the Parliament must suspend consideration of other bills, except for the one introduced in the regime of legislative necessity. A bill introduced by the President under the regime of legislative necessity should be considered and passed or rejected under the established procedure during sittings of a session of the Parliament within the period agreed with the President. 
 
ARTICLE 65

1. The enacted legislative act shall be sent to the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for signing and promulgation under the established procedure.
The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall consider, sign and promulgate it within 14 days from the date of receiving a law.

2. If the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within the period of 14 days from the date of receiving the law rejects it and sends it or its part for reconsideration, the Parliament shall reconsider this law or its part under the established procedure. If the law or its part is reconsidered and approved as passed earlier by at least two thirds of the total number of seats for Members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution, it shall be signed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within 7 days and shall be promulgated.
The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to reject and to send for reconsideration particular articles of a financial law or to propose cutting down of subsidies approved by the Parliament. Rejection and sending for reconsideration a particular article or a provision of a financial law shall not be an obstacle for its signing and enactment. The procedure of reconsideration and adoption of a law or its particular part should be similar to that specified in part 1, paragraph 2 of this Article.

3. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may not reject and send for reconsideration constitutional laws, amendments and additions to the Constitution adopted by the Parliament under the established procedure but shall sign and promulgate them. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may not turn down decisions on dismissal of top state officials from their offices, as well as on a pre-term dissolution of local Councils of People's deputies.

ARTICLE 66

To perform its supervisory duties the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to establish appropriate bodies whose establishment and order of functioning shall be provided by law.
 
ARTICLE 67

 
1. The Parliament shall have the exclusive right to initiate the procedure of removal from office and to take a decision on removal from office of top state officials of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (President, Vice-President, Chief Judge of the Constitutional Court, Chief Judge of the Supreme Court, Chief Judge of the Court of Arbitration, Prosecutor General), and Cabinet Ministers by decision of the Supreme Court of the  Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic confirming corpus delicti in their actions, and by resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as to observance of the established procedure for bringing a charge, if as a result of consideration they are found guilty in high treason, corruption, deliberate breach of the Constitution having entailed grave consequences, as well as in other grave crimes.

2. A decision of the Parliament concerning bringing a charge and removal from office shall be considered on the initiative by more than one third of the of the total number of seats for members prescribed by the Constitution, provided there is a resolution of a special commission established by the Parliament.
A decision on removal should be considered by the Parliament within two months after charging. If a decision is not taken by the Parliament within the specified period, the charge shall be considered rejected.
 
3. Decision on removal from office shall be taken by at least two-thirds of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. Approval of such a decision shall mean removal from office.
 
CHAPTER 3: PRESIDENT OF THE PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC. EXECUTIVE POWER
 
ARTICLE 68

1. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be elected by citizens of the Republic on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by ballot.
 
2. No Person except a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic eligible to vote, and who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and been ten years a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and been a resident within the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be elected President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

3. Elections of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be held on the basis of the majority electoral system (of relative majority). He shall hold his office for five years and together with the Vice President chosen for the same term.
Next elections of President and Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be held on the second Sunday of December of the year, in which the term of office of the outgoing President expires. No other elections and electoral procedures may be held on this day and 30 days before and after it. 
The manner of holding elections shall be prescribed by law.
4. In case of the removal of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic from office under the procedure prescribed by article 67 of this Constitution, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the Vice President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall become President until the disability be removed or a President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic be elected under the established procedure.
The Parliament may by law provide for the case of inability both of President and Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, declaring what officer shall then act as President until the disability be removed or a President be elected under the established procedure.
In case of pre-term removal from office of President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic due to the abovementioned reasons, elections of President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be held on the second Sunday of the month following three months after the date of pre-term removal from office. Pre-term elections for President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall not be held if it remains less than six months until the next elections for President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
5. Status of President and Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be prescribed by the constitutional law. President and Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall enjoy personal immunity.  
 
ARTICLE 69

1. Before the person elected President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic enter on the execution of his office he shall take the following Oath:
"I do solemnly swear that I will to the best of my ability observe and protect the Constitution and laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, respect rights and liberties of person and citizen, protect sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the state, and will faithfully execute the Office of President and serve the people of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic."

2. The oath shall be taken within 30 days after an official announcement of the elections' results in the solemn atmosphere at a special sitting of the Parliament with participation of representatives of executive and judicial state power bodies.
The moment of swearing the oath is the beginning of the term of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The outgoing President shall perform his duties until a newly-elected President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic enter on the execution of the Office. 
 
ARTICLE 70

1. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be Head of State; the executive power shall be vested in a President.

2. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be a guarantor of the Constitution and laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, of rights and liberties of person and citizen; he shall ensure strict observance of the Constitution and the laws. In the manner prescribed by the Constitution, he shall take measures for protection of sovereignty of the Republic, its independence and territorial integrity, and coordinate functioning and interaction of all state power bodies.

3. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall draw up a concept of domestic and foreign policy of the state in accordance with the Constitution and the laws, and take measures for its implementation.

4. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, within his powers provided by this Constitution, shall represent the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within the state and in its international relations.

5. Powers of the office of Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be specified by President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
 
ARTICLE 71

1. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and he shall have power on his own or by and with the consent of the Parliament to take any legal measures aimed at strengthening defense capability of the Republic.
In case of aggression against the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic or immediate threat of aggression, President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall introduce martial law on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and shall immediately inform the Parliament of this.
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, under the circumstances and in accordance with the procedure established by the constitutional law, shall introduce the state of emergency on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic or certain parts thereof.

2. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall preside over executive authority as well as ensure their interaction with other state power bodies in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The executive authority and top officials shall be accountable to the President.

3. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have power to grant pardon.
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have power to decide issues of citizenship of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and to grant political asylum.
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall institute national decorations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, honorary and special titles, shall confer national decorations and honorary titles of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, top military ranks and special ranks, highest qualification classes and class ranks.

4. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall address the nation and the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, shall from time to time give information of the most important matters of the domestic and foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, present annual reports to the Parliament on the state of the Republic, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. 
5. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have power to guide the foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, to make international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, to sign instruments of ratification provided the Parliament concur, to receive letters of credence and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives.
 

ARTICLE 72

1. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall issue decrees and orders.

2. Decrees and orders of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be executive orders not contrary to the Constitution and the laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

Legal acts of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, of the executive authority issued within their respective competence, shall be mandatory throughout the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.   
 
ARTICLE 73

1. According to home and foreign policy and as provided by law, each Minister, Head of Department, Head of state administration on his own and within his responsibility shall run affairs of the sphere and the administrative territory under his jurisdiction.

2. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall make decisions as to establishment of Ministries, Departments, and other state institutions to ensure efficient fulfillment of state functions.

3. President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall under the established procedure determine matters within the jurisdiction of Ministries, Departments and other state power bodies and to define competences of public officers of the executive power.
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to reject or suspend legal acts of Ministries and Departments, state administrations and other state power bodies, subordinate to or under control of the President. 
 
ARTICLE 74

1. To exercise his powers as the Head of the executive power, President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall form the Cabinet.
The following matters shall fall within jurisdiction of the Cabinet:
a) to suggest measures to implement domestic and foreign policy of the state promoting socio-economic development of the state and satisfaction of needs of society;
b) to take appropriate measures that the laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic be faithfully executed; 
c) to initiate laws in the Parliament through the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
d) to exercise other powers assigned by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic not entitled to delegate powers to the Cabinet, which under the Constitution fall within the exclusive jurisdiction of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
All decisions taken by the Cabinet shall be put in force by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

2. Ministers, Heads of Departments and other executive state power bodies, their members and other principal officers of executive departments directly subordinate to the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as well as ambassadors, other plenipotentiaries of the Republic, shall be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic except for the cases stipulated by the Constitution.
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Parliament appointment to which may by law vested in the Parliament on the nomination of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic by granting commissions which shall expire at their next session.
The end of the term of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall lead to resignation of Cabinet Ministers and other public officers directly accountable to the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

3. President, Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, Ministers, Heads of Departments, other principal officers of executive departments shall not hold other offices, be engaged in business or another activity, except for scientific, teaching or another creative activity, sit in a managing board or a supervisory council of a commercial organization, be a Member of Parliament or other legislature of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; they shall also suspend, for the entire term of office, their membership in political parties and other public associations set up to achieve political goals. 
 
ARTICLE 75

Ministries, departments and other republican organs of administration shall be executive authority.
Ministries, Departments and other republican authority shall be established exclusively to perform functions of the state, shall receive a compensation for their services from the state budget only. 
 
ARTICLE 76

Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic holding offices in public bodies and performing tasks and functions of the state on behalf of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be public servants. 
Legal status of public servants shall be prescribed by law.
 
CHAPTER 4: LOCAL ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
 
ARTICLE 77

1. Councils of People's deputies of cities, districts, villages (settlements), which are administrative territorial units of the Republic, shall constitute part of a single system of representative authority of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. Deputies of city, district and rural Councils of People's deputies shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot by residents of respective administrative territorial units for the term of five years. Elections shall be held under the majority electoral system.
District Councils of People's deputies shall be formed according to the principle of representation of interests of the population and the territory being part of respective districts. Heads of village (settlement) administrations elected by the population of respective territories by virtue of their posts shall be deputies of district Councils of People's deputies, other deputies shall be elected by population in single-mandate electoral districts.
The power, manner of holding elections (formation), and basic principles of local governing shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE 78

       1. Municipal administrations of towns and districts, which are administrative territorial units of the Republic, shall constitute part of the single system of executive authority of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and perform functions of public administration in cities and within the districts of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

2. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution, the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall appoint and dismiss heads of local administrations. 
 
ARTICLE 79

The system of local government, the manner of formation, basic principles of governing, financial and economic basis, as well as state guarantees of independence of local self-government shall be regulated by law of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
CHAPTER 5:  JUDICIAL POWER
 
ARTICLE 80

1. The judicial power of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be vested only in court.
2. Judicial power shall be exercised by courts through constitutional, civil, administrative, criminal, and arbitration proceedings.
The legal system in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be regulated by the constitutional law according to this Constitution. The creation of extraordinary courts shall not be permitted.
3. This Constitution and the constitutional law shall prescribe jurisdiction, the manner in which courts shall be established and work.
4. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall guarantee independence of judicial power.
The budget of courts should enable them to exercise their constitutional powers fully and independently; the budget of judicial departments may not be less than the budget of other state power bodies in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Budget of courts may not be diminished during the current fiscal year without an agreement of supreme judicial power of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic unless budget expenditures are cut down proportionately for all state power bodies. 
 
ARTICLE 81

1. While administering justice, judges shall be independent and shall obey only the Constitution and law of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. Any interference in administration of justice by judges shall be inadmissible and shall entail responsibility by law.
3. A court of law, having established unconformity of an act of government or any other body to the Constitution or law, shall make a ruling in accordance with the Constitution and law.
 
ARTICLE 82

       No Person except a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic holding a degree in law and who practiced law for at least five years shall serve as a judge.
        No Person except a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic holding a degree in law and who practiced law for at least ten years shall serve as a judge of the Constitutional Court.

ARTICLE 83

1. Judges, except for judges of the Constitutional Court and Justices of the Peace, shall be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and the Court of Arbitration respectively.
Justices of the Peace shall be elected by the population from among individuals meeting the requirements of the first part of Article 82 of this Constitution, on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Justices of the Peace shall be elected for the term of five years. The manner of holding elections of Justices of the Peace shall be prescribed by law.
Judges shall be irremovable until they reach the age of 65, except for judges appointed for the first time, Justices of the Peace, and individuals participating as judges in administering justice in the Constitutional Court.
First appointment to the office of judge shall be made for the term of five years, except for the cases stipulated by this Constitution.
 
2. A judge may not have his powers terminated or suspended except under procedures and on grounds established by federal law.

3. During their continuance in office judges may not be engaged in business or another activity, except for teaching, scientific and another creative activity.
During their continuance in office judges may not be members of political parties, and public associations pursuing political goals. Performing duties of a judge is incompatible with performing those of a Member of Parliament.
 
ARTICLE 84

1. A judge shall possess personal immunity.

2. A judge may not be made answerable except as provided for by law. 
 
ARTICLE 85

1. All trials in all law courts shall be open. Hearing of cases in closed sessions shall be allowed in cases provided for by law.
2. Administration of Justice shall be of adversarial character and shall be based on equality of the parties to a trial.  
 
ARTICLE 86

1. The Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be an institute of constitutional control in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall guarantee supremacy of the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, ensure observance of the principle of separation of powers, and guarantee responsibility of the state before a citizen and a citizen before the state.

2. The Constitutional Court shall be composed of 6 (six) judges, including the Chief Judge of the Court. A judge of the Constitutional Court shall be appointed for the term of seven years.

The powers of a judge of the Constitutional Court may be suspended or terminated only under the procedure stipulated by the constitutional law.
The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Parliament, and the congress of judges of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic each shall appoint two judges of the Constitutional Court.

3. Judges of the Constitutional Court shall be appointed from among individuals who reached the age of 40 by the day of their appointment and hold the office of a judge in other courts, as well as from among other individuals meeting the requirements of the second part of Article 82 of this Constitution. A person aged 58 and over may not be appointed a judge of the Constitutional Court.

4. The Chief Judge of the Constitutional Court shall be appointed from among the judges of the Constitutional Court under the procedure provided for by the Constitution. 
 
ARTICLE 87

1. To exercise constitutional control, the Constitutional Court shall settle cases as to constitutionality of: 
a) laws (including constitutional ones) of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as legal acts passed by the Parliament;
b) legal acts of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, of Ministries, Departments and other public authority, and local self-government of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, including as to settlement of disputes over jurisdiction between institutions of different power branches;
c) international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
d) law enforcement practice;
e) resolutions and legal acts passed by elective organs and officials of local self-government.
2. To exercise the constitutional control the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall decide on:
a) observation of the established procedure for bringing a charge against persons holding top public posts in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
b) constitutionality of international treaties signed by the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic before their ratification or approval;
c) unconformity of law (including the constitutional one) of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic to universally recognized principles and norms of international law, or to regulations of a ratified international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
d) other cases stipulated by this Constitution.
3. The Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, proceeding from complaints about violation of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and requests from courts shall decide on the compliance of the law applied or due to be applied in a specific case with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; considers complaints of citizens about violations of human and civil rights arisen from application of a law or normative act.
4. At the request of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Parliament, Plenums of the Supreme Court and the Court of Arbitration of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, or the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall resolve cases concerning constitutionality and exercise of the constitutional control in the cases and on the matters as provided by paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, shall give an obligatory interpretation of the Constitution and constitutional laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
5. The Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall decide only on law issues.
Decisions of the Constitutional Court shall be approved by a majority of judges provided for by this Constitution. 
 
ARTICLE 88

1. Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be definitive. Acts or their particular provisions adjudged as unconstitutional according to subparagraphs "a" and "b" of paragraph 1, Article 87 of this Constitution, shall become loose force thereof. Recognition of an international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as unconstitutional shall lead to consequences stipulated by international law, the Constitution and law of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Law enforcement deemed unconstitutional shall be subject to termination; the respective resolutions of state authority, local self-government and public officers should be reconsidered under the procedure prescribed by law.
2. The manner of establishment and activities of the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the procedures observed by it and other matters shall be regulated by the constitutional law. 
 
ARTICLE 89

The Supreme Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the highest judicial authority as to resolving civil, criminal, administrative and other cases falling within the competence of courts of general jurisdiction; it shall carry out judicial supervision of their activity under legal procedure provided by law, and gives clarification for judicial law issues.
 
ARTICLE 90

The Court of Arbitration of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the highest judicial authority as to settling economic disputes and other cases provided by law.
 
CHAPTER 6: THE PROSECUTOR
 
ARTICLE 91

1. The Prosecutor's Office of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall supervise the precise and uniform compliance of judicial organs, Ministries and Departments, local organs of power, organs of local self-government, enterprises, organizations and institutions, public associations, officials and citizens with the Constitution and laws.
The Prosecutor's Office shall conduct a preliminary investigation, and support the state prosecution in courts.
2. The Prosecutor's Office of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be a single centralized system, with subordination of subordinate prosecutors to higher ones and the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
3. Powers, organization and working procedure of the Prosecutor's Office of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be prescribed by the constitutional law. 
 
ARTICLE 92

The Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be appointed by the Parliament on the nomination of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for the term of five years.
The Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and inferior prosecutors shall be independent in exercising their powers from government and shall obey only the Constitution and law.
2. The Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be accountable to the Parliament and responsible to the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for proper fulfillment of his duties.
3. Prosecutors shall not be allowed to hold another office of trust and profit, be engaged in business or another activity, except for scientific, teaching or another creative activity, shall not be on a managing board or a supervisory council of a commercial organization.
During their continuance in office prosecutors may not be members of political parties, other public associations pursuing political goals. Fulfillment of prosecutor's duties shall be incompatible with exercising MP’s power. 
 
CHAPTER 7: DEFENSE, SECURITY, AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY
 
ARTICLE 93

Fundamental principles of ensuring national security of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, defense of the state, formation and operation of the Armed Forces of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, other military organizations of the state, paramilitary units, national security services, law-enforcement bodies, other security forces, shall be specified by law.
 
ARTICLE 94

1. The Armed Forces of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall perform the function of defense of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as of its sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
Decision on sending the Armed Forces abroad shall be taken by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on proposal of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. State security services within their jurisdiction shall prevent and protect the constitutional system, national sovereignty, territorial integrity and defense capability of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic against invasion. 
Law-enforcement bodies shall ensure personal security of individual, protection of property, public order and crime prevention. 
 
ARTICLE 95

It shall be a grave crime to use the Armed Forces of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, other military institutions of the state, paramilitary units, state security services, law-enforcement bodies, other security forces to change or eliminate by force the constitutional system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with the same purposes to prevent or restrict activity of government, restrict illegally constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen, as well as to commit aggression against other states. 
 
CHAPTER 8: FINANCIAL AND BUDGET SYSTEM
 
ARTICLE 96

1. The financial system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be based on its own monetary unit.
The right to be in charge of public finances shall belong only to the appropriate executive departments and only in accordance with the act of law to be passed by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. No public funds may be spent and state monetary obligations can be assumed otherwise than under the established procedure.
3. To cover an incidental budget deficit and incidental public expenses within the framework of the national budget a reserve fund shall be established, the responsibility for spending of which shall be placed on the executive power body in charge of finance.
 

ARTICLE 97

1. The budget shall include public receipts and expenditures.
2. The budget shall be approved by law for one year or for several years, in the latter case it shall be passed separately for each year before the beginning of the first fiscal year. Budget sections (budget programs) may be of different duration.
3. If the budget for the coming year is not adopted before the end of the fiscal year, pending its approval the appropriate bodies of state power shall be entitled to make, within the remit provided by law for an appropriate period of the past year, the expenditure on:
a) funding the specified budget organizations, government, and making expenditures allowed by law;
b) discharging liabilities of the state stipulated by law.
If the abovementioned expenditures are not covered by proceeds from taxes, dues and other sources, an executive department in charge of finance may grant a loan amounting up to one-forth of the total past year budget to support the economy.
4. Laws to be passed during a budget year on increase in the budget expenditure or decrease in the budget revenue, may be adopted by the Parliament only with the consent of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
5. Bills on imposition or abolition of taxes, on tax exemption, on issue of government loans, on changing state financial commitments, other bills relating to expenditures to be covered from the state budget, except for the cases stipulated in paragraph 4 of this Article, may be given consideration only if a resolution of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is available. 
 
ARTICLE 98

1. New taxes can be imposed and the existing ones changed only by law or under conditions prescribed by law.
The right to grant tax privileges and other exemptions within the limits and in the cases stipulated by law shall be given to appropriate executive departments, in other cases it may be granted only by an appropriate law to be passed by the Parliament.
2. Laws and other legal acts establishing new taxes and other compulsory payments or increasing a tax burden shall not be retroactive and shall enter into force from the beginning of a new financial year if published officially at least three months before.
A person shall not be forced to pay taxes and other compulsory payments imposed, calculated or collected neither by law nor in a manner prescribed by law.
3. Executive power shall be authorized by law to increase, decrease within the limits stipulated by law, or to abolish in cases provided by law, taxes and duties imposed by the Parliament as to the external economic activity, and to lay new taxes and duties; and, if needed, to reduce and prohibit import, export and transit of products, goods and property with the purpose of regulation of external trade, economy of the Republic, and stability in the domestic production, and to take any other measures for development of the economy and the state. When presenting a draft of the annual state budget, the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall submit information on the measures taken to exercise the abovementioned powers in the reporting financial year to the Parliament. 
 
ARTICLE 99

       The state taxation system shall be aimed at the welfare and benefit of the population, satisfying financial needs of the state, fair allocation of revenues and national wealth, encouraging national production. 
 
ARTICLE 100

1. The Central bank shall be a state bank.
The central bank of the state shall be accountable to the Parliament and the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and shall act within the remit prescribed by this Constitution and law. The status of the national central bank shall be specified by law.
2. Currency shall be issued only by the central bank within the limits prescribed by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, when approving the budget with a view of state regulation and promotion progress in the economy of the Republic.

SECTION IV: AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
 
ARTICLE 101

The Parliament, whenever two thirds of Members of Parliament shall deem it necessary, the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic or at least 15,000 voters shall propose Amendments to the Constitution. 
No amendment may be moved or made under martial law or the state of emergency.
 
ARTICLE 102

Provisions of Section I of the Constitution "Fundamentals of the Constitutional System", Section II "Rights, Liberties and Duties of Person and Citizen" and Section IV "Amendments to the Constitution" may be changed only through a referendum. 
 
ARTICLE 103

The Constitution may be changed through a law passed:
1. as a result of a referendum
2. by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
A bill on changing the Constitution shall be considered by the Parliament during three readings, with at least a two-month interval between the first one and the second one, and at least a month interval between the second one and the third one. 
 
ARTICLE 104

To submit a bill on amendments to the Constitution for a referendum, a two-thirds majority of votes of Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution is required. The referendum shall be held according to the constitutional law not earlier than in two-month period from the day of taking the appropriate decision by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
ARTICLE 105

A law on amendments to the Constitution shall be approved by the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within its competence by two thirds of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution.
 
ARTICLE 106

A passed law on amendments to the Constitution shall be signed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and shall be published officially within seven days.
If such a law is not signed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and is not promulgated within the abovementioned period, this law shall be put in force after its signing and official publication by the Speaker of the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The law on amendments to the Constitution shall take effect not earlier than in one-month period from its adoption. 
 
SECTION V. TRANSITIONAL NORMS AND PROVISIONS
 
ARTICLE 1

December 24, 1995 as the day of holding the national referendum is recognized as a day of adoption of the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
 
ARTICLE 2

Courts in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall administer justice within their jurisdiction provided by this Constitution.
On the entry of this Constitution into force, judges of all courts of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall retain their powers. Vacant offices shall be filled in the manner prescribed by this Constitution.
2. Elections of the Justices of the Peace shall be called after adoption of a law on Justices of the Peace by the Parliament in time and manner prescribed by it. 
 
ARTICLE 3

1. Laws, including constitutional ones that are referred to in the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, shall be passed or brought into line with it within one year after this Law comes into effect. All other laws and other legal acts shall be brought into line with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within a two-year period after this law takes effect.
2. Laws and other legal acts in force before this Law coming into force, pending being brought into line with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, shall be applied in the part consistent with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
3. Laws and other legal acts passed in the Council Union, the Moldavian SSR, the SSR Moldova, may be applied on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in the part consistent with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
After the expiry of two years from entering this Law into force, laws and other legal acts passed in the Soviet Union, the Moldavian SSR, and the SSR Moldova shall become void, and shall not be applied on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. 
 
ARTICLE 4

1. On the entry of this Law into force, Members of Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall retain their status and powers and acquire the status of Members of Parliament provided by the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, and have it until the elections for a newly-elected Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. The Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall remain bicameral until election of the Parliament of a new convocation after passing this Law.
3. On the entry of this Law into force, rules and norms regulating organizational matters of the Parliamentary business shall be applied in the part consistent with the Constitution. The procedure for introduction, consideration and approval of bills shall remain in force (in view of a bicameral structure of the Parliament), including the procedure for rejection and reconsideration in the part consistent with the Constitution norms. 
 
ARTICLE 5

1. On the entry of this Law into force, the incumbent President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall retain his powers, acquiring rights and duties provided by the Constitution, and hold his office until a new President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is elected in accordance with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
2. Executive officials holding their offices before the entry of this law into force shall retain their powers, acquiring rights and duties prescribed by the Constitution. Dismissal of the abovementioned persons from the offices and appointment of new officials after the entry of this Law into force shall be made in a manner prescribed by the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
3. Before September 2, 2002 no Person except a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic eligible to vote, and who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and been a citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic since introduction of citizenship of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be elected President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. After the abovespecified date a norm specified in Paragraph 2, Article 68 of this Constitution shall be in force. 
 
ARTICLE 6

On the entry of this Law into force, local Councils of People's deputies and state administrations shall acquire the status, and norms and provisions specified in Chapter 4, Section III of the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be applied to them. 
 
ARTICLE 7

1. Pending the passage of an appropriate law on the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Constitutional Court shall be formed by law and without special decree as required by Articles 62 and 86 of this Constitution.
2. Before the appropriate law is passed, the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall act and administer justice in accordance with the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the legislation of civil procedure currently in force. 
 
PRESIDENT OF THE PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC  I. SMIRNOV